英语语法-副词

英语语法-副词

时间副词

种类

1.确切时间:yesterday, today, now, tomorrow

2.不确切时间:already, recently, lately, before, soon, then, afterwards

3.副词短语:this morning, last night, in the morning, a week ago, three months ago,

​ at once, in a while, in recent days.

位置

确切时间副词:句首 or 句末(更常见)(祈使句只在句末)

​ Tomorrow I’m leaving for Beijing on a businiess tour.

​ I’m leaving for Beijing on a business tour a week ago.

​ Come to my office this afternoon.

不确切时间副词:句首 or 句中 or 句末

​ Very soon we’ll be there

​ We’ll very soon be there

​ I have been busy recently.

​ before, early, immediately, late 句末

​ Ihave never heard such a story before.

​ He came to school late.

总结:句末保险,句中的副词不多,祈使句只在句末。

地点副词

种类

1.表示方向:away, down, in, off, on, over, out, round, up

2.表示位置:here, there, somewhere, anywhere, nowhere, everywhere

介词短语:in the park, at home, in the street

位置(一般:动词后)

1.方向副词在地点副词之前:He often walks around in the garden after supper.

2.大地点副词在后:He works in a foreign-funded company in Beijing.

3.方向副词:away, down, in, off, on, over, out, round, up, here, there可以倒装

倒装1:副词+动态动词+名词主语

​ Here comes the teacher.

​ Round and round flew the plane.

倒装2:副词+物主代词+动态动词

​ Away they went.

​ Here he comes.

4.介词短语+动词+主语 倒装:down, from, in, on, over, out ,of, round, up

​ From the trees hang a lot of monkeys.

​ Down this street stand a lot of shops.

​ On the ground lies a man whose legs are broken.

总结:一般句末;有些倒装结构句首。

频率副词

种类

1.确切频率:daily, weekly, monthly, yearly/annually, twice a week/month/year

2.不确切频率:always, often, usually, sometimes, occasionally, frequently, continually,

​ repeatedly, once, ever, never, rarely, seldom(否定).

位置
1.不确切频率在 句中

1)实义动词前(am, is, are, was, were),助动词后(will, should, have)

​ a. I often do some shopping on weekends.

​ b. She is often late for school.

​ c. I have never seen him since we parted.

2)多个助动词时,在第一个助动词后

​ a. This project will never be finished.

​ b. You should never have trusted him.

3)加强语气,在系动词 or 助动词 前

​ a. You really will get a reward one day.

​ b. I always have been patient.

4)只有助动词而省略了实义动词的句子,在助动词前

​ a. You should have known better thaan to trust him. I never will(trust him)

​ b. Can you find a plaace to park your car in the street? Yes, I usually can.

也要用在省略了标语的系动词前: No, she never was.

2.确切频率在 句末

​ a. Milk is delivered daily.

​ b. We have meetings twice a week.

3.不确切频率也可用在句首 or 句末

​ a. Often/Sometimes/Usually I work late into the night.

​ often不单独在句末,需加very or quite修饰

​ b. He comes late for school quite often.

4.always除在祈使句中句首,其他时候在句末

​ a. You always make the same mistakes.

​ b. Always remember not to argue with your boss.

5.否定句中的频率副词

​ a.often/sometimes/usually not

​ His wife complains that he sometimes doesn’t listen to her.

​ b.not always

​ He doesn’t always leave before 6 o’clock, sometimes he works until 8 o’clock.

6.never, rarely, seldom

​ a.不能再与not连用

​ He seldom goes out at night.

​ b.若在句首则倒装

​ Never have I heard such a story (I have enever heard such a story)

总结:不确切频率在句中,确切频率在句末。

程度副词

意义:表示程度或大小,修饰形容词、副词、动词、甚至名词

位置:被修饰词前

比较

​ Only I saw him at the party last night(Nobody else saw him)

​ I only saw him at the party last night(I didn’t talk to him)

​ I saw only him at the party last night(I didn’t see any other friends)

​ I saw him only at the party last night(I didn’t see him at other places)

​ I saw him at the party only last night(I didn’t see him until last night)

enough:在所修饰形容词 or 副词之后

​ He is not old enough to go to school

​ He didn’t work quickly enough

否定副词不与否定词连用 barely, scarcely, hardly

注意:与频率副词rarely区别

​ 不说:He hardly attends class

​ 应说:He rarely attends class

可以修饰名词的程度副词

​ quite, only, even, particularly, especially, almost, rather.

​ quite some, quite an expert

​ It was quite a surprise.

​ rather a bore, rather a shame

注意:quite在a/an前,rather可前可后

​ quite a nice day.

​ rather a long way a rather long way.

​ vegetables, especially spinach, are good for you

​ He is almost a child

​ Even a boy knows the answer

方式副词

修饰:动词专用

构成:数目不固定,可由形容词+ly构成

位置:修饰动词的后边
有宾语时,宾语在前 I can’t speak English well.He can finish the job quickly.
若动词后成分很长,则在动词前 He firmly believes that he will succeed.I happily pronouce you man and wife.
动词+介词+宾语,可位于宾语后或介词前 The class is listening to the teacher carefullyThe class is listening carefully to the teacher
方式副词在被动分词之前 I was badly paid in that company when I just graduated.When do you think you will have completely finished?

句子副词

修饰:整个句子

位置:句首

意义:

表示说话角度:Geologically, a thousand years is a short time.

表示说话人态度:Frankly, I think he is dishonest.

​ Hopefully, we can get there in time

比较方式副词和句子副词

句子副词:Happily, he didn’t die. 幸好,他还活着

方式副词:He didn’t die happily. 他不是安然地离开了这个世界

其他位置

副词顺序:方式副词+地点副词+时间副词

​ She sang an English song nicely in the auditorium last night.

​ She checked the accounts carefully in the office this morning.

(不)确定性副词:probably, possibly, perhaps, certainly, definitely, surely.不在句末

​ He has probably not been there before.

​ I definitely know how to deal with this matter.

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