英语语法-完成时

英语语法-完成时

现在完成时(一):开始于过去的动作一直持续到现在,有可能继续持续。谓语动词为延续性动词

I have lived here for 3 years. 我仍然住在这里,而且还可能继续住下去。

如果在搬家时说这句话,则live这件事只持续到目前为止。

The teacher has taught in this school since I came here.

I’ve worked in this company since I left school.

since表明了动作开始的时间点。

有上下问明确告知,动作只持续到说话的时刻为止。

​ a. A: Have you waited long?

​ B: I’ve waited for three hours.

​ b. I’ve waited for him all day; I don’t want to wait any longer.

特点:
  1. 谓语动词为延续性动词

  2. 动作的发生时间是过去,持续到现在,还可能继续持续下去。

  3. 常常与表示一段时间的时间状语连用,是说明某个状态持续了多久。

与现在完成时搭配的时间状语

1. since + 时间点

​ a. I’ve worked in thiss company since 1980

​ b. I’ve worked in this company since I left school. (从句中一般过去时)

2. for + 时间段

​ a. I’ve worked in this company for three years.

​ b. Great changes have taken place in Beijing for the past few years.

3. 到目前为止:until now, up until now, up to now, up till now, so far.

​ a. We have up until now failed to take any action to decide on a common language that would further communication between nations.

4. 在最近几世纪/年/月以来:in the past few years, over the past few years, during the last three months, for the last few centuries, through centuries, throughout history.

​ a. Throughout history man has had to accept the fact that all living things must die, for the very nature of life includes death.

​ b. Through centuries the bizarre anticss of sleepwalkers have puzzled police, perplexed scientists anad fascinated writers.

现在完成时(二):过去发生但与现在仍有联系的动作或状态

a. He has broken his leg. 他现在还在医院,所以不能和同学一起郊游。

b. He broke this leg. 退摔断过,单纯表示一种过去的经历,但现在腿已经好了。

c. You should have put the milk into icebox; I expect it has become undrinkable by now.

牛奶变质是过去某一时刻的动作,但其影响延续到现在。现在牛奶已经不能喝了。

第二种现在完成时使用技巧。

1. 不与一段时间的时间状语连用:常见 come, go, leave, kill, die, lose, buy, start, give, marry

he has left his hometown for 3 years.

改正:

​ a. He left this hometown 3 years ago.

​ b. It’s 3 years since he left this home town.

​ c. He hasn’t come back since he left his hometown 3 years ago.

​ d. He has been away from his home town for 3 years.

2. 终止性动词的完成时句子若用否定,表示尚未发生的事情,则可以为一种状态,从而表示延续。

​ a. I haven’t seen a film for weeks.

​ b. I haven’t heard form my girlfriends since I came to America

​ c. I haven’t bought a pair of shoes for a year.

3. 与不确定时间的时间状语连用

这种完成时,可以同一些表示不确定的时间状语连用:already, yet, lately, often, just, never

​ a. A: would you like something to eat?

​ B: No, thanks. I’ve just had dinner.

​ b. The leading expert on sleep in America claims that he has never seen a sleepwalker.

​ c. Has it stopped raining yet?

​ d. He has already arrived.

​ f. I have often thought that it would be perfect if we could fly without any aid.

4. 具有新闻性质:表示最近才发生的动作,提供新消息。有新闻性质

​ a. The President has been assassinated.

​ b. He can’t go on holiday because he has broken his leg.

强调的时间内容,而不算是发生的过去具体时间。

通常的日常对话,以现在完成时开始问答。过去时间咋唉说话人的脑子中已经确定了,则继续用一般过去时。

​ c. I hear that famous Chinese comedian has died.

​ Really? When did she die? She was dead late last night.

现在完成时(三):表示到目前为止的一个时间段内重复发生的动作。

For more than eighty years, scientists have argued over whehter life exists on the planet Mars.

We have taken three tests so far this week.

其他现在完成时的结构

1. This/ That/ It is + 序数词 + 名词 + that + 现在完成时

​ a. It is the third thime that I’ve come to Beijing.

​ b. It is the fifth time that someone has knocked at my door.

​ c. This is the thenth cup of coffee that I’ve drunk this evening.

2. This/ That/ It is + 最高等或only修饰名词 + 现在完成时

​ a. This is the most interesting movie that I’ve ever seen

​ b. This is the best wine I have ever drunk

​ c. This is the hardest job I have ever had.

3. 如果是It was the second/ best… that 后面要用过去完成时

​ a. It was the fifth time that someone had knocked at my door that night.

总结:一直在持续; 重复发生;影响现状

现在完成时与一般过去时比较

不同时态,表明了说话的时间不同。

a. I haven’t seen him this morning.

b. I didn’t see him this morning.

a. 句用了现在完成时,而完成时生死要与现在发生联系的。所以a说话的时间是this morning

b. 句用的是一般过去时,说明this morning已经成为了过去,所以b说话时间是今早后

c. I have called thim three times this morning.

d. I called thim three times this morning.

c. 表示到现在为止的一个是时间段内重复的动作。所以c说话时间是this morning

d. 过去时,和现在没有什么联系,所以说话时间是今早后

延续性动词的两种时态区别

a. He lives in Beijing. He has lived here for 3 years. (可能还继续住在这里)

b. He lived in Beijing for 3 years and then emigrated to America (曾经住过,已经搬走了)

过去完成时:过去某时刻之前就开始的动作;

(1)该过去时刻仍然在继续,或该过去时刻刚刚停止

(2)在该过去时刻之前的某一时刻已经停止的动作做

(3)在该过去时刻之前一段时间内重复的动作

(1)

a. I had stayed in America for two years when he moved here.

b. I had lived in 兵庫 for one and a half years when I came to Aizu.

有上下文表示持续过去这一时刻刚刚停止

c. I had waited for her for two hours in susch a severe winter when she eventually turned up

d. There had been fifty colleges in our city up till 1993.

(2)

a. She had made everything ready before I came.

b. Her baby had fallen asleep when she went into the room.

c. Before John got home, Mary had gone to bed.

d. I had just poured myself a cup of tea when the phone rang. When I came back from answering it, the cup was empty. Somebody had drunk the tea or thrown it away.

(3)

a. I had written her 100 letters when she finally promised to marry me.

b. I had proposed to her five times, but she still refused to marry me.

过去完成时的其他用法

1. intend, mean, hope, want, plan, suppose, expect, think, propose, wish

动词的过去完成时,可以表示过去未能时间的计划,设想,意图或希望等

​ a. I had planned to go shopping with you but my mother came to see me just when I was about to go.

​ b. She had hoped that he would come to date her, but he didn’t show up.

​ c. I had intended to see you, but I was busy.

​ d. They had hoped to see you off at the airport, but they got there too late.

2. 用在It was the + 序数词 或最高级 that 句中。

​ a. Last week I attended an international conference and saw Mr. Machine. It was the third time that I had met him.

一把拿过去时与过去完成时的比较

1. 两个或以上相继发生的动作,用and 或 but 按动作发生的先后顺序连接,此时要用一般过去时。 过去完成时则强调主语在过去某一时刻回顾更早的动作,具体来说。当我们在讨论过去某一事件时,想到了在这之前已经发生的某事,这时用过去完成时。

​ a. He opened the door and entered, but found nobody.

​ b. He served in the army for ten years; then retired and married. His children are now at school.

​ c. When I had written my letters I did some gardening.

​ d. When I wrote him a letter, he came at once.

​ e. When the singer had sung her song, she sat down.如果说when the singer sang her song, she sat down.给中一种印象,这位歌手喜欢坐着唱歌。

将来完成时:站在将来某一时间来谈某一个动作的完成情况

动作开始的时间可以是过去,现在,未来。但并不重要,说话人强调的是他们一共有5门

​ a. We started our exam yesterday and we will have taken five exams by next Friday.

​ b. We have started our exam today and we will have taken five exams by next Friday.

​ c. We will start our exam tomorrow and we will have taken five exams by next Friday.

1. 同现在完成时第一种用法的将来完成时

​ a. I will have taught English in New Oriental School for five years by the end of next month.

​ b. I will have learned 8000 words by the end of next year.

​ c. I will have waited for her for two hourss when she arrives at 2 o’clock this afternoon.

2. 同现在完成时第二种用法的将来完成时:对将来有影响

​ a. We will have finished our exam by the end of next week.

​ b. By the year 2050, scientists probably will have discovered a cure for cancer.

​ c. I will graduate in July. I will see you in September. By the time I see you, I will have graduated.

​ d. I will have finished my homework by the time I go out on a date tonight.

3. 同现在完成时第二种用法的将来完成时:重复发生。

​ a. By five o’ clock this afternoon the spaceship will have traveled eleven times round the world.

完成时的三种思维用法

1. 延续到现在的动作或状态,可能继续延续,也可能到现在为止。

2. 过去发生但与现在仍有联系的动作或状态。对现在有影响。

3. 到目前为止的一个时间段内重复发的动作。

4.不同时间的完成时本质上是一样的。只是说话人的立足时间不同。

● Sorry I’m late. The car broke down on my way here.

● Yesterday I had a phone call from Clint. I was very surprised. I had written to him many times but he had never replied to my letters.

● The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. It was his first flight. He had never flown before.

● Last spring I went to France. It was the first time that I had been there.

● Look! Somebody has spilt milk on the carpet. Well, it wasn’t me. I didn’t do it. I wonder who it was then.

● I lost my key, so I couldn’t get into my house. But now I have found it.

● He has been in the army for five years.

● I’ve already had lunch.

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