同 时 态：从句先发生
从 句 中：现在表将来
|将来/现在||I’ll speak to him when he arrives.|
|将来/现在完成||I’ll give you a call when I have finished the work.|
|过去/过去||I started my dinner when he left.|
|过去/过去完成||He left when I had got there.|
|过去完成/过去||I had started my dinner when he left.|
Smile whenever you pick up the phone, for the caller will be able to notice it.
while + 延续动词：从句发生期间发生
The doorbell rang while we were watching TV.
We’ll stay here till it stops raining.
I did not realize I would need English in the future until I came to Japan.
|until句首||Until he saw his mother, the little boy didn’t smile.|
|主句倒装||Not until he saw his mother did the little boy smile.|
|强调||It was not until he saw his mother that the little boy smiled.|
一…就：as soon as, once, the minute, the moment, the instant, immediately, directly, instantly.
It began to rain as soon as/immediately/the moment I arrived home.
- No sooner had I arrived home than it began to rain.
2. Hardly/Scarcely had I arrived home when it began to rain.
3. No sooner had we begun having dinner than the doorbell rang.
next time, by the time, every time, each time, the day, the week.
a. The day he returned, his father was already dead.
b. Next time you come, remember to bring along your sister.
c. Every time I listen to your advice, I get into trouble.
在…之前：by the time
a. By the time they arrived, we had already left.
b. By the time they arrive, we will have already left.
Generally, air will be heavily polluted where there are factories.
wherever there is love, there is also wealth and success.
wherever, anywhere, everywhere引导
wherever I happens to be, I can make myself at home.
You want to know why I am leaving?
I am leaving because I’m fed up with the job and boss.
You shouldn’t get angry just because some people speak ill of you.
Since Monday is Bob’s birthday, let’s throw him a party.
She didn’t hear us come in as she was asleep.
Pay attention to your enemies, for they are the first to discover your mistakes.
介词短语表原因：because of，due to(非句首)，owing to(句首)：只接名词
Owing to his carelessness we had an accident.
I didn’t attend the meeting because he was present.
复合连词表原因：seeing (that)，now (that)，considering (that)，given (that) = since
Now that the semester is finished, I’m going to rest a few days and then take a trip.
The girl is like her mother in that she also has very delicate feeling.
常用连词：so that，in order that，that；从句：有表能力的情态动词
I spoke slowly and clearly so that/ in order that the audience could understand me.
In order for sb to do sth
I spoke slowly and clearly in order for the audience to understand me.
In order to(可句首)/so as to do：主从句主语一致
All the key words in the article are printed in bold type so as to attract attention.
以免连词：lest，for fear (that)，in case：以免，生怕
Take an umbrella with you lest it would rain.
其他连词：in the hope that，on purpose that，for the pupose that，to the end that
The teacher raised his voice on purpose that the students could hear more clearly.
常用连词：so…that，such…that，such that(such = so+adj.)
His anger was so explosive that he lost control of himself.
a. So fast does light travel that it is difficult for us to imagine its speed.
b. Such a fool was he that he believed him.
such…as to do sth，such as to do sth，so…as to do sth (as不能省略)
Her voice was such as to make everyone stare.
其他短语：to the degree/extent (that)，to such a degree/extent (that)(句首时倒装)
a. To such an extent did his health deteriorate that he was forced to retire.
b. The bereaved mother was grieved to the deggree that she couldn’t eat for 3 days.
1.a. so + 形容词 or 副词 b. such + 名词
a. This is so expensive a house that I can’t afford to buy it.
b. This is such an expensive house that I can’t afford to buy it.
2. a. so + 形容词 + a(n) + 名词 b. so + many/much/few/little + 名词
a. This is so expensive a house that I can’t afford to buy it.
3. 数量词/限定词 + such + 名词
one such man; no such man; every such man; five hundred such men
常用连词：though, although, even though, even if. (主句前不用but，可用yet/still)
Though he tried hard, yet he failed.
介词让步：despite, in spite of, for all, notwithstanding后只接名词(短语)
Although it was dangerous, … = Despite the danger, …
While I sympathize with your point of view, I can not accept it.
No matter 特殊疑问词 = 特殊疑问词 + ever
Whoever may trouble you, I will help you to the last.
as倒装：(adj/ adv/ 分词/ 名词/ 短语) + as + 主语 + 谓语
a. Young as he is, he is knowledgeable.
b. Much as I respect him, I can not agree with him.
c. Child as he is, he is knowledgeable.
d. Lazy a boy as he is, he is kind to help others.
f. Praised as he was, he remained modest.
(as/so) + 形容词 + as + 主谓，放在句首
As amusing and perceptive as graffiti may sometimes be, it has by no means won universal approval.
Be it ever so humble, there is no place like home.
= However humble it may be, there is no place like home.
结构1: as 形容词/副词 + as
The work is not as difficult as you think.
结构2: as + 形容词 +a(n) + 可数名词 + as
Americans tend to think from small to large. Let us take as simple an example as the addressing of envelopes.
He is not so/as clever as you.
He is taller than me.
a. A is … times bigger than B.
b. A is … times as big as B.
c. A is … times the size of B.
The more … , the more: 先翻译从句，后翻译主句
a. The more she practiced, the worse she sang.
b. The less you open your heart to others, the more your heart suffers.
c. The nearer it is drawn to the surface of the earth, the more a body weighs.
(just)as … , so …：类比
a. Just as dark clouds cannot long hide the sun, so no lies can cover up the fact.
b. As it is the mark of great minds to say many things in a few words, so it is the mark of little minds to use many words to say nothing.
A is to B (what/as) C is to D
Air is to man what/as water is to fish = What/As water is to fish, so is air to man.
No more … than或not … any more than：同 … 一样不能（than后面肯定式，否定意思）
You are no more clever than he. = You are as stupid as he.
Not more … than …：平起平坐
You are not more clever than he = You both are clever, not stupid.
Not A so much as B/ not so much A as B：
a. The great use of a school education is not so much to teach you things as to teach you the art of learning.
b. The trumpet player was certainly loud, but I was not bothered by this loudness so much as by his lack of talent.
常用连词：as, like, as if, as though, the way
a. When in Rome, do as the Romans do.
b. Work like you don’t need money, love like you’ve never been hurt, dance like nobody’s watching.
c. Do it the way you were taught.
d. He looks (as though/as if) he is an actor.
e. Do as I say, not as I do.