主 谓 Internet dating hurts
主 谓 宾 I like chatting online
主 谓 间宾 主宾 Chatting on the internet brings me a lot of fun
主 谓 宾 宾补 We can call Internet addicts a Webaholic
种类：be动词（am is are）
look sound smell taste feel seem appear become turn
表语：名词 or 形容词
|Transitive Verb with direct object and indirect object||主+谓+间宾+直宾|
|Transitive Verb with direct object and object complement||主+谓+宾+宾补|
Be: am, is, are, was, were, been, being
Do: does, did
Have: has, had, having
|Be||am, is, are, was, were, been, being||帮助构成进行时态||I am studying grammar.He is playing football.|
|I was cheated.|
|Do||Does, did||帮助实义动词构成否定||I do not like English.|
|帮助实义动词构成疑问||Do you like English?|
|Have||Has, had, having||帮助构成完成时态||I have studied English for 3 years|
be do have可作实义动词又可作助动词
|be||I am a student||“是”||系动词, 作谓语|
|I am studying grammar||无词义||助动词, 构成进行时|
|have||I have two brothers||“有”||实义动词, 作谓语|
|I have studied English for 3 years||无词义||助动词, 构成完成时|
|do||I often do my homework at home||“做”||实义动词, 作谓语|
|I do not like English||无词义||助动词, 构成否定|
常见： can/could may/might must shall/should will/would have to ought to used to need/dare
变形：助动词或情态动词后 + not
例：He is a teacher. He is not a teacher.
I can swim. I cannot swim.
He will come to the party he will not come to the party
变形：借助助动词do not来构成，第三人称用does + not + 动词原形，过去式did + not
例：I like English. I do not like English.
He likes English.. He does not like English.
There are some dogs. There aren’t any dogs.
|I am||Am not||Null|
|We/You/They are||Are not||Aren’t|
|She/He/It is||Is not||Isn’t|
|I/He/She/It was||Was not||Wasn’t|
|We/You/They were||Were not||Weren’t|
|I/You/We/They do||Do not||Don’t|
|He/She/It does||Does not||Doesn’t|
|I/You/We/They have||Have not||Haven’t|
|He/She/It has||Has not||Hasn’|
其他词变化：and->or already->yet both->either some->any
祈使句： 祈使句前+don’t Don’t open the door.
不定式： 不定式前+not She asks the boy not to play in the street.
变形：助动词 or 情态动词移至句首
例：He is a teacher. Is he a teacher? Yes, he is/No, he isn’t
变形：加do does did于句首，实义动词变原形
例：He likes English. Does he like English? Yes, he does/No, he doesn’t.
I like English. Do you like English? Yes, I do/No, I don’t.
He can sing in English. Who can sing in English.
I saw him at the party last night. Who did you see at the party last night?
I like English. What do you like?
I am studying English grammar. What are you doing?
I am studying English grammar. What are you studying?
I’d like to go swimming tomorrow. What would you like to do tomorrow?
I was born in 1980. When were you born?
He lives in Beijing. Where does he live?
He goes to school by bus. How does he go to school?
I often study at the library because it’s quiet. Why do you often study at the library?
Could you lend me your pen?
Sure. I have two pens. This pen has black ink. That pen has red ink.
Which pen/Which one/Which do you want?
That red one. Thanks.
This is his book. Whose book is this?
I borrowed Jack’s car last night. Whose car did you borrow last night?
How do you go to work?
I drive/ By car/I take a taxi/I take a bus/By bus.
How did he break his leg?
He fell off the ladder.
和形容词 or 副词连用
How old are you?
How tall is he?
How big is your new house?
How far is it from your home to school?
How well does he speak English?
How quickly can you get here?
对频率提问：how often/how many times?
I write to my parents once a month. How often do you write to your parents?
I go shopping twice a week. How often do you go shopping?/How many times a week do you go shopping?
Once a —> day/week/month/year
The present simple tense
is used to express a general truth or fact, or an action that occurs regularly or habitually. Generally, the present simple tense verb conveys a sense of permanence.
Truth or fact
The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
The earth moves around the sun.
An action that occurs regularly or habitually
I often spend two hours reading English in the morning.
Classes begin at nine in the morning
The world is round.
He doesn’t work hard.
always frequently usually sometimes generally occasionally often
never seldom rarely
Here comes your wife= your wife is coming.
There goes our bus; we’ll have to wait for the next one.
4.条件状语(if unless)，时间状语(when as soon as before after )从句中，表示将来动作
Please let me know when he comes back.
What are you going to do when you leave school?
I’ll be glad if she comes over to visit me.
The past simple tense
is used to express a completed action which took place eat a specified time in the past.
The specified time is either stated or implied.
A completed action
I saw him in the library yesterday morning.
I began to learn English ten years ago.
A past action that occurred regularly or habitually
I slept for eight hours last night.
She lived in our town for three years,but now she is living in Beijing.
He was late for school this morning.
I bought this computer three years ago.
I lived in the country for ten years.
He used to do morning exercises.
He took a walk after supper when he was alive.
The future simple tense
is used to express an action that will occur at some time in the future.
Will or Be Going To can be used to express sort of certainty.
According to the weather report, it will be windy tomorrow.说话人认为将要发生
According to the weather report, it is going to be windy tomorrow.根据明显迹象判断
Be Going To is used to express a definite plan.
I have bought a computer and I’m going to learn the computer science.
Will is used to express a willingness.
The telephone is ringing; I will answer it.
Be Going To(对话前做出的决定)
What program are you watching?
He is not available now. He is talking on another phone.
what are you doing these days?
I am learning the usage of verb tenses.
What are you doing on Saturday night?
I’m doing some shopping with Jane. I am taking a makeup test tomorrow.
Jack is always borrowing money and forgetting to pay you back.
He’s continually asking me for money.
I was discussing my thesis with my director at this time last night.
What were you doing at 10 o’clock last night? I was having dinner with my friends
The phone rang while I was having my bath, as usual.
I was watching TV when the phone rang.
I’ll be lying on a beach in Sanya this time tomorrow.
Don’t telephone after eight tomorrow. I’ll be having a meeting.
These red roses are for you.
I have three close friends.
I really need a new computer.
主语 宾语(介词不能单独使用，后面所接宾语) 表语
限定词: 泛指，特指，定量，不定量(these three a the my that)，冠 词(a an the)
形容词: red close new best small
限定词在形容词前: 限定词+形容词+名词: three red roses.
专有名词 Paris, the United States, Bill Gates
个体名词 student tree hospital house piano
集体名词 team committee police group family
物质名词 paper water cotton air
抽象名词 birth happiness evolution technology hope
简单名词 story student teacher
复合名词 girlfriend roommate mother-in-law
I need some paper to write a letter(纸 不可数)
I have a term paper to write on weekends(论文 可数)
I bought a paper(报纸 可数)
room(空间 不可数; 房间 可数)
可数名词: 前面可以+ a or an or 数词(two)
2.-s -x -ch -sh结尾+es读[iz] 若ch发音为[k]时+s (stomach/stomachs)
3.辅音字母+y: 变y->ies 读[iz]; 元音字母+y: 直接+s 读[z]
potato/potatoes tomato/tomatoes hero/heroes piano/pianos photo/photos radio/radios
2)f或fe结尾 f, fe->ves 读[s] or 直接+读[s]
half/halves knife/knives leaf/leaves life/lives
belief/beliefs chief/chiefs cliff/cliffs proof/proofs roof/roofs
aircraft deer giraffe sheep
man teacher/men teachers woman pilot/women pilots
beer blood coffee cream gasoline honey juice milk oil tea water wine
bread butter cheese ice ice-cream meat beef chicken fish chalk copper cotton glass gold iron
air fog oxygen smoke
advice anger beauty confidence fun happiness health honesty informaation love luch peace
furniture fruit jewelry luggage equipment poetry machinery
advice bread baggage chalk equipment furniture information jewelry luggage music news
2.bottle cup drop glass
beer blood coffee milk tea water wine
a loaf of bread a tube of toothpaste a pack of cigarette a slice of meat
her friends’ money
the children’s Day
my father-in-law’ s company
everyone else’ s viewpoints
Henry the Eighth’ s wives
the President of America’ s secretary
4.and连接的并列名词: 共有情况: 最后+’s ; 各自所有情况: 每个名词后+’s
5.重量 度量 价值
two pounds’ weight a ton’s weight a ton’ s steel two dollars’ worth of sugar
This bike is mine, not Michael’s
at the baker’s at the butcher’s at the chemist’s at the doctor’s
go to my sister’s I called at my uncle’s yesterday.
the visitor’s departure the teacher’s request the growth of agriculture
the children’s education the boy’s punishment the discussion of the plan