英语语法-关系从句

英语语法-关系从句

概念:用句子修饰另一句子中的概念(词 to 整个句子)

单词:The woman who lives next door is a famous dancer.

短语:He likes climbing mountains, which is a good exercise.

分句:He said that he had no time, which isn’t true.

整句:He arrived an hour later, which annoyed his girlfriend very much.

形成:两个句子共用的概念为连接点

He laughs best who laughs last.

句子1. he laughs best 句子2. he laughs last 关系词 who

共用He,句1:描述事实,句2:限定作用

种类:形式区别:有无 “,”

限制性:提供必要信息,若去掉,含义不明

I don’t like people 意思不明

I don’t like people who never keep their words.

非限制性:补充附加信息,若去掉,含义仍明

Beijing, which is the capital of China, has developed into an international city.

关系词:根据关系词在从句中充当的成分,被分为:关系代词,关系副词

关系代词

关系代词 用法 例句
who:只指人 前不可加介词 The girl who you work with is his girl friend
whom:只指人 只宾/表,宾语非限制性必用 Li, with whom you work, is his girl friend
which:不指人 非限制性句首时用as As I expected, he didn’t believe me
that:指人or物 不加介词,无非限制性 The world in which we live is made up of matter.
whose+名词指人or物 whose = of which These children sit in a schoolroom of which all the windows are broken.
特殊关系代词

as:正如

限制性:只能用在such,the same,as,so

​ a. He’ll repeat such points as are discussed in the book.

​ b. Such a student as works hard will be sure to succeed.

​ c. He tried to make as few mistakes as he could avoid.

​ d. He is not the same playboy as we knew.

非限制性:位于句首必须用as

As is known, the whale is not fish but a mammal.

代替全句:as:主从句内容一致 which:主从句内容互斥

She has married again, as was expected.

She has married again, which was unexpected.

what:等于 先行词 + 关系词

单独使用:不能有先行词

She is not what she used to be = She is not the girl that she used to be.

what+名词:所有的…

a. I will give you what help I can.

b. What money I have has been given to you = All the money that I have…

辨析:结构上也可以理解成名词从句,意思上如下

名词从句:整个句子的意思

What he said shows that he is cruel.

what从句:只指what这个人或物

He is not what he was a few years ago.

than:主句有比较级

a. Don’t drink more wine than is good for health.

b. Don’t give him more money than is needed, since money will burn a hole in his pocket.

but:eq that/who/whom…not

​ a. There is no man but errs = There is no man who doesn’t err.

​ b. There are few but admire his talent = There are few who don’t admire his talent.

​ c. There are very few people in this club but he knows =whom he doesn’t know.

关系副词

限制性 or 非限制性 从句中必做状语
关系副词 先行词 例句
when=on which 时间:day,year,time I’ll never forget the day (when) I met you(紧随其后可省略)I’ll never forget the time which I spent on campus(不做状语时)
where=in/at which (抽象)地点place,housesituation, point,joint When you read books, you had better make a mark at the spot where you have any question(定语从句修饰spot)When you read book, you had better make a mark where you have any question(状语从句)
why无非限制性 原因:why等 This is the reason why I didn’t come herewhy = for which
方式the way in whichthat省略 You know the old golden rule, “Care for others the way in which you would like them to care for you”
介词+关系代词(whom/which/whose)

动词/形容词搭配的介词,可前可后

线索 说明 例句
从句中介词和动词搭配形容词搭配名词搭配 最常用常见较少 He is the man on whom I think you can depend.He referred me to some books with which I am not very familiar.I am sending you an inquiry, to which your prompt attention is highly appreciated.
介词先行词搭配 at the ratewith ease The speed at which an animal lives is determined by measuring the rate at which it uses oxygen.
修饰部分of which 最高级+of whom/which The total cultivated area is 13,000 acres, of which 10,000 acres are irrigated fields.
in which to do 此结构注意 A house in which to store grains = A house to store grains inI can’t think of anybody whom to invite 没有介词不能用介词不能置后不能用关系副词代替
引导词辨析
从句 that which
定语从句 充当成分The rumor that he spread everywhere turned out to be untrue.(充当定语) 单独使用Anger is a wind which blows out the lamp of the mind.
名词从句 不当成分THe rumor that Tom was a thief truned out to be untrue.(句子完整) which + 名词连用You should vote for which candidate you assume best.
复杂定语从句
定语从句后置 先行词和定语从句分开 Consequently, nothing seems good or normal that does not accord with the requirements of the free market.
带有插入语 表达个人观点紧跟关系词后 He ran all the way from the station, which I thought was incredible.
并列定语从句 and/or/but连接多个从句修饰同一词 I’d much rather receive a gift that was unique or that I knew my friend had put some thought into.
嵌套修饰 定语从句修饰“先行词+定语从句” He is the only person that we know who speaks so many foreign languages.

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发布于

2020-02-29

更新于

2020-03-10

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