英语语法-动名词

英语语法-动名词

做主语

1. 直接句首做主语:谓语动词用单数

​ a. Seeing is believing.

​ b. Reading is like permitting a man to talk a long time, and refusing you the right to answer.

​ c. Having a successsful marriage takes effort and patience, and communication is the key.

2. It is no good doing sth句型

it形式主语,真正主语是doing sth

no可以替换为:any/some good, any/some/no use, a waste of time.

​ a. Is it any good trying to explain?

​ c. It’s not much use my buying salmon if you don’t like fish.

​ d. it’s simply a waste of time and money seeing that movie.

3. there be句型

1) there is no point (in) doing something,做某事没有意义

​ a. there is no point in my going out to date somedone, I might really like if I met him a the time, but who, right now, has no chance of being anything to me but a transitional man

2) there is no use/good (in) doing something

​ a. there is no use your arguing with him

​ b. there is no use your complaining to me about this.

3) there is no doing something = it’s impossible to do something = we can’t do something.

​ a. there is no denying the fact that…毋庸置疑

​ b. there is no gainsaying the fact that…毋庸置疑

​ c. there is no telling what will happen tomorrow.

​ d. there’s no knowing the future = it’s impossible to know the future, or we can’t know it.

做宾语

1. 一些动词后只能用动名词做宾语

appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, dislike, enjoy, escape, feel like, finish, can’t help, invlove,

overlook, permit, postpone, practise, risk, can’t stand, suggest, tolerate, understand.

​ a. I will overlook your being so rude to my sister this time but don’t let it happen again.

​ b. Many of the things we do invlove taking some risk in order to achieve a sitisfactory result

​ c. Being a bad-tempered man , he would not tolerate having this lectures interrupted.

接动名词和不定式有区别的动词:

很多动词接动名词和不定式均可,但是意思有很大差别。

1. demand, deserve, need, require, want

动名词:主动形式表示被动

不定式:必须用被动形式

​ a. The garden needs watering/ to be watered. 不说 The garden needs being watered.

​ b. Your hair needs cutting/ to be cut.

2. remember, forget, stop, go on, regret.

动名词:表示发生于这些动词之前的事

不定式:表示发生在这些动词之后的事

1) remember

remember doing sth: remember/ recall something that happened in the past.

记得已做过某事

​ a. I still remember being taken to Beijing for the first time.

​ b. I don’t remember/recall locking my suitcase

​ = as far as I know, my suitcase should be open

remember to do sth: remember to perform a responsibility, duty or task.

记得需要履行的职责 or 任务。

​ a. Remember to go to the post office, won’t you?

​ b. Remember to do some shopping after work.

​ c. Clint always remembers to turn off the lights when he leaves the room.

2) forget

forget doing sth: forget something that happened in the past.

忘记了已做过的某事

​ I forgot locking the door. So when I came back, I found the door locked.

​ as far as I know, the door should be open.

forget to do sth: forget to perform a responsibility, duty or task.

忘记要做的事

​ As well as getting on everybody’s nerves, he’s got a habit of borrowing money and forgetting to pay it back.

3) stop

stop doing: 停下经常做的或手头正在做的事情

​ I really must stop smoking.

stop to do: 停下来去做某事

​ stop to have a rest.

4) go on

go on doing sth: 继续做一直在做的事情。

​ a. The teacher went on explaining the text.

​ b. Peter went on sleeping despite the noise.

go on to do sth: 改做另一件事

​ a. He welcomed the new students and then went on to explain the college regulations.

​ b. Finishing the new words, the teacher went on to attack the text.

5) regret

regret doing sth: regret something that happened in the past.

对已发生的事情感到遗憾

​ a. I don’t regret telling her what I thought, even if it upset her.

​ b. I regret letting slip that opportunity.

​ c. I regret lending him so much money. He never paid me back.

​ d. Now he regrets not having gone to university.

regret to do something: regret to say, to tell someone, or to inform someone of some bad news 遗憾的告诉或通知某人某个坏消息。

​ a. We regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you employment.

​ b. I regret to tell you that you failed the test.

​ c. We regret to inform you that the flight has been cancelled.

动名词的其他结构

1. have difficulty (in) doing sth

​ trouble

​ problem

​ (a lot of fun)

​ (lots of) pleasure

​ a hard time

​ a good time

​ a difficult time

注意: take the trouble to do sth, trouble to do sth, have (no) time to do sth.

​ a. I worked sos late in the office last night that I hardly had time to catch the last bus.

​ b. I have a hard time getting used to living in a big place.

2. can’t help doing, can’t resist doing, can’t keep from doing, can’t hold back from doing

​ can’t keep back from doing

注意: can’t help but do, can’t but do, can’t choose but do,etc.

​ No one can help liking Tom; he is such a cute boy.

3. be worth doing值得做;主动形式表示被动

​ be worthy of being done 或 be worthy to be done.

​ a. The book is worth reading.

​ b. The book is worthy of being read.

​ c. The book is worthy to be read.

动名词的复合结构

物主代词(his, my ,your等)所有格名词(Mary’s Tom’s)与动名词连用,即构成动名词的符合结构。用来引出动名词的逻辑主语,以区别于句子主语。

Clint insisted on reading the letter. (Clint看了信)

Clint insisted on my reading the letter. (我不得不看信)

Would you mind telling us the whole story? (你告诉)

Would you mind Tom’s telling us the whole story? = Would you mind if Tom tells us the story

He disliked working late

He disliked my working late

I object to making private calls on this phone

I object to his making private calls on this phone.

用法

做主语或宾语

​ a. Tom’s coming home at last was a great consolation (做主语)

​ b. Do you mind my making a suggestion? (做及物动词宾语)

​ c. Our discussion of earthquakes would be imncomplete if we didn’t raise the possibility of their being caused by external forces.

物主代词(his)可以改为宾格代词(him) or 所有格名词(Tom’s)改成普通格名词(Tom)

​ a. It’s no use Tom arguing with his boss.

​ b. Do you mind me making a suggestion?

​ c. I am annoyed about John forgetting to pay.

应用原则:

1) 若动名词复合结构在句中做主语,最好用所有格形式

​ a. Tom’s refusing to accept the invitation upset me.

​ b. His refusing to accept the invitation upset me.

​ c. It was a great consolation his coming home at last.

2)动名词复合结构在句中做宾语时候,用普通格或所有格均可

​ a. Do you mind me making a suggestion?

​ b. I am annoyed about John forgetting to pay.

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