英语语法-介词

英语语法-介词

介词

特点:不能单独使用,后面需带宾语(名词,代词,数词,动名词,动名词短语,名词从句)
搭配:在介词前的词:动词(depend on)名词(pay attention to)形容词(be kind to)
充当:

与其宾语构成介词短语后可充当主语,补足语 ,定语,状语

作用:词与词之间的表示关系

种类:

简单介词(at, by, for, from, in,near, of, off, on)
复合介词

​ 简单链接:inside, into, onto, out of, outside, throughout, upon, within, without

​ 搭配连用:as to, from above, from behind, from beneath, from under, until after

介词短语:

at the cost of, at the mercy of, at odds with, by means of, by reason of, by virtue of,

by way of, in place of, in favor of, in spite of, with an eye to.

关于:in/with reference to, in/with respect to, in/ with regard to

时间介词:

1.at, in, on
1)at(时间点)

​ a.特定时刻:at nine after ten

​ b.不确定时刻:at night, at dawn, at midnight, at that time, at the moment, at Christmas

​ c.年龄段:

​ at the age of eight/at eight

​ He got married at twenty

2)in(时间段)

​ a.长时间段

​ in the morning/afternoon/evening

​ in spring/summer/autumn/winter

​ in the past, in the past ten years

​ in the twenty-first cenfury

​ a man in his thirties

​ b.在时间之内/后,表将来时

​ He said he would come back in a month

​ The train is leaving in a minute

​ c.in+动名词:在做…过程中

​ In crossing the river, we caught some fish.

​ In working, we can learn a lot.

​ d.几月:in October

3)on(表示具体日期)

​ a.具体日期和星期

​ on Monday On my birthday

​ b.特定某天上午、下午等

​ On the night of December 31,1999

​ On the eve of christmas/New Year

​ On a hot midnight in July

​ c.在第几天

​ On his first day to school.

​ On the tenth day I was in Beijing.

​ d.on+动名词 or 名词 = as soon as:一…就…

​ On hearing the bad news, she burst into tears.

​ On arriving, I came directly to visit you.

​ The first thing I did on arrival of Beijing was visit him.

at the beginning of 在..的开头

​ at the begining of a book there is often a table of contents.

​ at the begining of the concert.

​ at the beginning of January.

in the begining:at first = in the early stages

​ In the begining, I wrote to my family regularly. later I just gave up

at the end of

​ But at the end of this process, unfortunately, the students are none the wiser.

​ At the end of abook there may be an index

​ At the end of the concert at the end of January

in the end:eventually = at last:最终….

​ Jim couldn’t decide where to go for his holidays. He didn’t go anywhere in the end.

有last/next/this/every不再加介词

​ I’ll see your next Friday.

during for

​ during在…期间内,强调这时间内发生了什么 for表示延续时间的长短

​ I had lived in the countryside for 8 years before I moved to Beijing.

​ I studied in this university for 4 years. During that time most of my time was spent in learning English.

​ My father was in hospital for six weeks during the summer.

during接表示一段时间的名词:stay, visit,travel

​ During my visit to China

​ During the travel to the south

​ During the Middle ages

for+时间段

​ for six years for two months for ever for two hours

from

​ 和to 或 till/untill连用

​ Most people work from nine to five.

since

​ 和时间点连用,从那一时刻起。现在完成时,过去完成时连用

​ He has been here since last Sunday

​ I haven’t seen him since two years ago

​ I haven’t seen him for two years

​ It’s two years since I last saw him

for

和时间段连用,表示动作延续到说话的那一刻。现在完成时,过去完成时连用

​ I have lived here for a year

​ I have lived here since this time last year

before, after, till/until(可做介词接短语,可做连词接从句)

​ 后接时间点,某时刻前(before)某时刻后(after)直到某一时刻(till/until)

​ We finished the work before 10 o’ clock

​ I’ll wait for you till 10 o’ clock

till/until特点

​ 延续性句子谓语(肯定)+till/untill+时间点(若是从句,则从句中谓语动词为短暂性动词)

​ 短暂性句子谓语(否定)+till/untill+时间点(若是从句,则从句中谓语动词为短暂性动词)

​ He didn’t finish the work untill 10 o’ clock(finish短暂动词,用否定)

​ He didn’t leave the office till 12 o’ clock

​ He will stay here until next Sunday(stay延续性动词,用肯定)

by

​ a.no later than:不迟于某个时间,到了某个时间

​ by the end of next year

​ b.by引导时间状语常与将来完成时 or 过去完成时连用

​ By the end of next year I’ll have learned 2000 words

​ By the end of last year I had learned 2000 words

方位介词

at, in

at表示小地方

at home, at the office, ata school, at the bridge, at the crossroads, at the bus-stop

at the doctor’s, at the hairdresser’s

in表示大地方

in a country, in a town, in a village, in the street, in the forest, in a field, in a desert

其他情况

in a line/in a row/in a queue

in a photo/in a picture

in a mirror

in the sky/in the world

in a book/in a newspaper/in a magazine/in a letter

in the front/back row(at the front/back)

in the front/back of the car

at the front/back of the building/cinema/classroom

谈论建筑

at表示事情发生场合

I met him at the cinema last night.

in表示建筑物本身

I enjoyed the film but it was very cold in the cinema

in强调在建筑里,at包括建筑物周围及里面

at the restaurant(可以是餐馆内,也可以是在餐馆附近的某个地方)

in the restaurant(在餐馆里)

at the cinema(在电影院,不一定在里面)

in the cinema(在里面)

There were a lot of people in the shop, It was very crowed

Go along this road, then turn left at the shop

on, over, above

on表示两者接触

Put away the books on the desk

The dictionary on the table is not mine

There is some water in the bottle

There is a label on the bottle

There is somebody at the door. Shall I go and see who it is?

There is a notice on the door. It says “Do not disturb”

on的其他情况

on the left/on the right

on the first/second floor

on a map

on the page/on page seven(at the top/bottom of the page)

on the menu

on the list

on a farm

on the way to school

on the corner of street, in the corner of the room

over不仅接触,还有覆盖的含义

Spread the cloth over the table

Mon put a rug over me when I was asleep

over还可以表示正上方

There is a bridge over the river

There is a lamp over the desk

above仅表示上下位关系,不接触,也不是正上方

The sun rose above the horizon

There is a bridge above the river

He is over me(He is my immediate superior)

He is above me

below,under,beneath

under在下方,可接触,可不接触

I put the money under the mattess

The dog is groveling under the table

below表示两个表面之间间隔距离

They live below us

beneath可以替换under,但是偏向抽象含义

He would think it beneath him to tell a lie

She married beneath her

手段介词

by

表示行为方式

send something by post

do something by hand

pay by check/by credit card(pay in cash)

某事发生:by mistake/by accident/by chance(on purpose)

表示交通工具

by car, by train, by plane/air, by boat/sea/ship, by bus,

by bicycle, by metro/subway/underground(on foot)

by car(in a car, im my car, in the car)

I don’t mind going by car but I don’t want to go in your car

car, taxi前用介词in

They didn’t come in their car. They came in a taxi.

自行车和公共交通设施前用on

on the train/by train, on his bicycle/by bicycle

表示通过 某种手段达到预期效果(与with区别)

We succeeded by cooperating with them

Our mission is to help our clients achieve their business goals by providing a service

for the timely delivery of qualified staff to support their operational needs.

with

表示用具体的工具做某事

I killed a fly with a flyflap

We can see with our eyes and write with our hands

in

表示以某种方式做某事

Write in pencil/in ink

Express this in your own words

Speak in a low voice

Pay in installments

through

与by相近,through一般多根名词连用, by多跟 动名词连用

they talked to each other through an interpreter.

英语学习-语法系列github仓库,欢迎收藏star

参考文章:
参考链接

作者

辣椒の酱

发布于

2020-03-02

更新于

2020-03-10

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