英语语法-人称代词

英语语法-人称代词

主格人称代词

作用:主句或从句中做主语

​ She is my daughter.

​ It was he who helped me when I was in trouble.

顺序: you, he and I ; We, you and they(I总是 放在最后)

表示泛指的主格代词

one:任何人,包括说话人

​ One is knocking at the door.(错误,说话人不算,所以不能用one)

​ Somebody is knocking at the door.

​ One后面使用的代词,美国一般用he,him,himself,his.

We/You/They 可以表示泛指:人们

​ They say = People say or It is said

​ They say it is going to be a cold winter.

she(her)的拟人化:表示country, motherland, moon, earth, ship.

​ The ship lost most of her rigging in the storm

宾格人称代词

作用:做宾语(也可做表语)

​ I like her.

​ Who is it? It’s me.

注意:做表语时,后面跟定语从句时,需要用主格人称代词。

​ It was he in whom we had the greatest faith(he在从句中做介词宾语)

主格和宾格人称代词可以做同位语:

​ We teachers should be patient with students.

​ Our teachers are all nice to us students.

做宾语时的位置

直接宾语前: He bought me a pen as birthday gift.

直接宾语后:He bought a pen for me as a birthday gift ; I’ve lent much monery to him.

若直接宾语是人称代词,只能置后,但是不适用于不定代词:

​ I will give it to you.

​ I‘ll show you something ; I didn’t give Rex any.

在短语动词中间:Hand them in ; throw it away ; pick it up.

​ 若是名词,则中间和后边都可:hand your papers in = hand in your papers.

物主代词(名词性&形容词性)

作用:人称代词的所有格形式,表所有关系。

形容词性:不能单独使用: Your book is over there ; His sister is lovely.

​ 表强调时后+own:I wish I had my own house.

名词性:单独使用;避免重复:This is not my book. Mine(=my book) is in my bog.

​ of + 名词性物主代词: a friend of mine ; a teacher of hers= a teacher of her own.

反身代词

必须主语宾语为同一人时,做宾语:God helps those who help themselves.

强调主语:

​ He himself went to visit the old lady(他亲自去看望那个老太太的)

不产生歧义下可置后:

​ He went to visit the old lady himself.

​ He spoke to the boss himself.(有歧义)

强调宾语:反身代词在宾语后

​ He saw Tom himself(他看到Tom本人了)

​ I will send this gift to John himself(给john本人,不是通过转交)

介词+反身动词

(1)by oneself:独自一人地

​ I went there by myself(我自己一个人去了那里)

​ I went there myself(我亲自去了那)

(2)of oneself:自动地

​ The door opened of itself(门自动地开了)

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