# 英语语法-定语从句

#### 先行词指人

who和whom区别

• who在从句中可做主语，宾语，表语，但who之前不可用介词

​ I like the people who I work with

​ I like the people with whom I work

• whom在定语从句中不能做主语，可以做表语或宾语

​ A rich person is not one who has the most, but is one who needs the least.

• 表示人或物的所有关系：whose + 名词：在从句中可做主语，动词宾语，介词宾语

a. When I looked through the window, I saw a girl whose beauty took my breath away.

b. It was a meeting whose importance I did not realize at the time

c. Atlas(in Greek mythology) was a kneeling man on whose shoulders the world rested.

#### 先行词指物

• a. which可以指代单个名词

​ Perhaps it is human to appreciate little that which we have and to long for that which we have not

• b. which可以指代单个短语

​ He likes climbing mountains, which is a good exercise.

• c. which可以指代前面整个句子

She wore her swimming things in the office, which shocked her boss a great deal.

#### that指代人或指代物：注意不可以用在介词后面

The world that/which we live in is made up of matter.

The world in which we live is made up of matter.

#### 最好用that情况

• 先行词有人也有物时，用that

​ The writer and his novels that the article deals with are quite familiar to us.

• 先行词为指物的all, little, few, much, none, the first用that

​ a. All that glitters is not gold.

​ b. This book contains little that is useful.

​ c. There is not much that can be done.

​ d. As long as you stand up to the difficulties, there are none that cannot be overcome.

• 先行词是不定代词something, anything, nothing, everything用that

​ a. Is there anything that I can do for you?

​ b.Greater expense does not always equal better gift, I would much rather receive a gift that was unique or that I knew my friend had put some thought into rather than something that cost a lot of money but that I didn’t need or want. I would much rather receive something that made me laugh, made me reminisce, or fit my personality that something that cost a lot but that I will just throw in my closet and forget about.

• 先行词被any, only, all, every, no, some, much, few, little, 序数词，最高级，the only, the one, the very, the right, the last，修饰时用that

​ a. Tell us all things that you know.

​ b. There is no difficulty (that) they can’t overcome.

​ c. The only thing that we should do is find our way home.

​ d. The very problem that I want to solve is like this.

​ e. He is the only man that can speak four foreign languages in our company.

#### 关系代词省略

​ a. Tina likes the present which I gave her for her birthday.

​ b. Tina likes the present that I gave her for her birthday.

​ c. Tina likes the present I gave her for ther birthday.

​ d. I like the people who I work with.

​ e. I like the people I work with.

​ f. I’m talking about friends who you can share almost everything with.

​ g. I’m talking abouot friends you can share almost everything with.

#### 关系副词的用法：when, where, why，从句中做时间状语，地点状语， 原因状语

• 先行词指时间

​ when 引导限制性和非限制性定语从句，先行词须是表示时间的名词

​ day, year, time, when可以用on which来替换

​ a. I’ll never forget the day when I met you.

​ b. I’ll never forget the day on which I met you.

​ c. We will put off the outing until next week, when we won’t be so busy.

​ d. The day may soon come when we don’t bother to go to office but just work at home.

• 关系副词when在从句中做时间状语

that来引导定语从句。因为when来引导定语从句的前提条件是：when 在其引导的定语从句中做时间状语。

​ a. The day, which began brightly, ended with a violent storm. (which做主语)

​ b. I’ll never forget the time which I spent on campus. (which做spent宾语)

​ c. I’ll never forget the day when we first met in the park. (when做时间状语修饰met)

#### where的用法 = at which或in which

• where引导定语从句，先行词必须是表示地点的名词，如place, house

​ a. Do you know any place where I can buy Clint’s grammar book?

​ b. Do you know any place at which I can buy Clint’s grammar book?

​ c. This is the town where(in which) I spent my childhood.

​ d. This is the restaurant where I often have my breakfast.

• 关系副词where在从句中做地点状语

​ a. This is the town where I spent my childhood.

​ b. This is the town which I told you about before. which做about的宾语

​ c. The library where students often study was on fire last night.

​ d. The library, which was built in the 1930’s, needs to be renovated.

​ e. One of the places which I want to visit someday is Tibet. which做visit宾语

why的用法：只用来引导限制定语从句，先行词是reason等表示原因的名词

This is the reason why I didn’t come here

#### 限制性和非限制性的定语从句

​ 作用：用来提供必要的信息，限定身份或性质，限制范围，若去掉从句，含义不明

​ 例子：I don’t like people意思不明

​ I don’t like people who never keep their words.

​ 作用：提供附加的非必要信息，补充说明或解释，去掉从句，不会引起误解。

​ 例子：Beijing, which is the capital of China, has developed into an international city.

#### 用不用逗号的句子意义有差别

he has a daughter who works in a hospital he has a daughter, who works in a hospital a，表示他有多个女儿，其中一个在医院工作b，强调他有一个女儿，不是儿子，在医院工作
the food which wasn’t in the fridge all went off. the food, which wasn’t in the fridge, all went off a，没有放在冰箱里的那部分食物坏了b，食物都坏了，因为没有放在冰箱里。此时的定语从句补充说明变坏的原因。

限制性定语从句一般翻译成定语形式“….的”

a. the food, which wasn’t in the fridge, all went off.

b. the Ambassador gave a dinner to the scientists, with whom the especially wished to talk

c. the people were desperate for work, any work, which could support their family.

d. the millionaire had another house built, which he didn’t need at all

#### that引导的定语从句和同位语从句的区别

• that是否做成分：that在定语从句中充当成分，在同位语从句中不做任何成分

​ a. the rumor that he spread everywhere turned out to be untrue.

​ b. the rumor that tom was a thief turned out to be untrue.

​ b 中that在从句tom was a thief中不做任何成分。

• 从句作用

​ 定语从句相当于形容词，他对先行词起到修饰，描述和限制的作用。

​ 同位语从句相当于一个名词，他是前面名词的内容的具体表述。两者是同位的关系。

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