I like the people
who I work with
I like the people
with whom I work
A rich person is not one
who has the most, but is one
who needs the least.
**表示人或物的所有关系：whose + 名词：在从句中可做
a. When I looked through the window, I saw a girl
whose beautytook my breath away.
b. It was a meeting
whose importanceI did not realize at the time
c. Atlas(in Greek mythology) was a kneeling man
on whose shoulders the world rested.
- a. which可以指代单个名词
Perhaps it is human to appreciate little
that which we have and to long for
that which we have not
- b. which可以指代单个短语
He likes climbing mountains,
which is a good exercise.
- c. which可以指代前面整个句子
She wore her swimming things in the office,
which shocked her boss a great deal.
that/which we live in is made up of matter.
The world in
which we live is made up of matter.
The writer and his novels
that the article deals with are quite familiar to us.
- 先行词为指物的all, little, few, much, none, the first用that
a. All that glitters is not gold.
b. This book contains little that is useful.
c. There is not much that can be done.
d. As long as you stand up to the difficulties, there are none that cannot be overcome.
- 先行词是不定代词something, anything, nothing, everything用that
a. Is there anything that I can do for you?
b.Greater expense does not always equal better gift, I would much rather receive a gift that was unique or that I knew my friend had put some thought into rather than something that cost a lot of money but that I didn’t need or want. I would much rather receive something that made me laugh, made me reminisce, or fit my personality that something that cost a lot but that I will just throw in my closet and forget about.
- 先行词被any, only, all, every, no, some, much, few, little, 序数词，最高级，the only, the one, the very, the right, the last，修饰时用that
a. Tell us all things that you know.
b. There is no difficulty (that) they can’t overcome.
c. The only thing that we should do is find our way home.
d. The very problem that I want to solve is like this.
e. He is the only man that can speak four foreign languages in our company.
关系代词who, whom, which, that 若在定语从句中用作宾语，可以省略
a. Tina likes the present which I gave her for her birthday.
b. Tina likes the present that I gave her for her birthday.
c. Tina likes the present I gave her for ther birthday.
d. I like the people who I work with.
e. I like the people I work with.
f. I’m talking about friends who you can share almost everything with.
g. I’m talking abouot friends you can share almost everything with.
day, year, time, when可以用on which来替换
a. I’ll never forget the day when I met you.
b. I’ll never forget the day on which I met you.
c. We will put off the outing until next week, when we won’t be so busy.
d. The day may soon come when we don’t bother to go to office but just work at home.
a. The day, which began brightly, ended with a violent storm. (which做主语)
b. I’ll never forget the time which I spent on campus. (which做spent宾语)
c. I’ll never forget the day when we first met in the park. (when做时间状语修饰met)
- where引导定语从句，先行词必须是表示地点的名词，如place, house
a. Do you know any place where I can buy Clint’s grammar book?
b. Do you know any place at which I can buy Clint’s grammar book?
c. This is the town where(in which) I spent my childhood.
d. This is the restaurant where I often have my breakfast.
a. This is the town where I spent my childhood.
b. This is the town which I told you about before. which做about的宾语
c. The library where students often study was on fire last night.
d. The library, which was built in the 1930’s, needs to be renovated.
e. One of the places which I want to visit someday is Tibet. which做visit宾语
因为说明原因，所以不是补充说明，不能做非限制定语从句 = for which
This is the reason why I didn’t come here
形式上：有无 “，” 分割开来
例子：I don’t like people意思不明
I don’t like people who never keep their words.
例子：Beijing, which is the capital of China, has developed into an international city.
|he has a daughter who works in a hospital||he has a daughter, who works in a hospital||a，表示他有多个女儿，其中一个在医院工作b，强调他有一个女儿，不是儿子，在医院工作|
|the food which wasn’t in the fridge all went off.||the food, which wasn’t in the fridge, all went off||a，没有放在冰箱里的那部分食物坏了b，食物都坏了，因为没有放在冰箱里。此时的定语从句补充说明变坏的原因。|
a. the food, which wasn’t in the fridge, all went off.
b. the Ambassador gave a dinner to the scientists, with whom the especially wished to talk
c. the people were desperate for work, any work, which could support their family.
d. the millionaire had another house built, which he didn’t need at all
a. the rumor that he spread everywhere turned out to be untrue.
b. the rumor that tom was a thief turned out to be untrue.
a 中that在从句he spread everywhere 做成分，充当spread的宾语，为定语从句
b 中that在从句tom was a thief中不做任何成分。